History Of Photo Manipulation
The history of doctoring photographs dates back to the 1860s, only a few decades after Niepce created the first photograph in 1814, photographs were already being manipulated.
In 1860 a photograph of the politician John Calhoun was manipulated and his body was used in another photograph with the head of the president of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. This photo credits itself as the first manipulated photo.
Retouching has therefore been around almost as long as photography itself, but instead of taking place on a computer, as it does now, it originally took place on the negative. Photographers and retouching specialists would scrape their film with knives, draw or paint on top of it, and even paste multiple negatives together to create a single print.
The practice began not long after the creation of the first photograph (1825) by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce who developed heliography and made the first photographic print from a photoengraved printing plate.
Traditional photographic prints can be altered using various methods and techniques that involve manipulation directly to the print, such as retouching with ink, paint, airbrushing, or scratching Polaroids during developing (Polaroid art).
Negatives can be manipulated while still in the camera using double-exposure techniques, or in the darkroom by piecing photos or negatives together. Some darkroom manipulations involved techniques such as bleaching to artfully lighten or totally wash-out parts of the photograph, or hand coloring for aesthetic purposes or to mimic a fine art painting.
So far the few amount of stuff we were sharing here are public information from online encyclopedias. Now I'd like to share my own experience about the topic.
My personal interest in photography started after I've seeing an HDR (high dynamic range) photography - which offers rich colors, details and wide range of light from every possible exposure value of light. And that photography was shot by Ansel Adams in 1949. Many people learned the term HDR after they started in digital photography and regular masses heard about such a technique when they saw it in their smartphone app. BUT High Dynamic Range photography wasn't new just like Photo Manipulation.
Air Brushing as a retouching method was a widely used method since the beginning. From Marylin Monroe to Rita Hayworth; there's NO glamorous celebrity photography without air brushing. This method allowed accomplishing perfect looking skin on women and still used today in EVERY magazine out there.
As we mentioned above posts cutting people or objects out of one shot and placing them to another is as old as photography itself. In film and plate photography this has to be done in negatives. And when it's printed it look like an original without any flaw depending on the talent of the photo-manipulator. This is what today the masses called "photoshoping" -- actually from dodge / burn filter to pen tool; every command in Photoshop has their roots to dark room & film negative manipulation. Ansel Adams was darkening the sky to make clouds more menacing in his dark room over negatives of his photos during the developing phase, and brightening the landscape area in his photos to make it more rich and deep on detail. Surely you can not fix a bad photo no matter what method you are using; photography has to be shot well also.
We have also mentioned these tools available since the early days of photography. So no one should be surprise when they hear that a "UFO" photography shot in 1930's or 1950's are fake. The same methods we talked about used to create those ethereal images in monochrome and sephia photos from the far past by simply layering over objects that weren't there on negative film then develop and print it.
🙂 seems, my joke about photoshop hit the nail after all . WOW thank you Kerem Go 👍